Douglas McGregor’s Theory X/Y is one of the most recognized and influential 20th century management theories, featured in management and organizational behavior textbooks, practitioner-oriented press, and pop-ular topical Web sites. McGregor’s theory appears ubiquitously in textbooks read by health care employees enrolled in management courses and in industry-related periodicals and is often cited in academic journals. McGregor’s theorizing lacked empirical support, whereas his early research found no evi-dence that Theory X/Y mindsets were related to performance.

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